How to Prevent Schizophrenia Introduction Experts now agree that schizophrenia develops as a result of interplay between biological predisposition for example, inheriting certain genes and the kind of environment a person is exposed to. These lines of research are converging:
Received Jun 23; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background In Sweden, self-reported depressive symptoms have increased among young people of both genders, but little is known about social differences in the risk of depressive symptoms among adolescents in welfare states, where such differences can be less pronounced.
Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether multiple measures of low social status in childhood affect depressive symptoms in adolescence. A secondary aim was to explore potential gender effect modification. The study population at baseline consisted of children, 11—12 years-old, from schools in Stockholm County, followed up through adolescence.
Parental education, occupation, country of birth, employment status and living arrangements were reported at baseline, by parents and adolescents. Depressive symptoms were self-reported by the adolescents inusing a item inventory. The associations between childhood social status and depressive symptoms in adolescence are presented as Odds Ratios ORestimated through logistic regression.
Gender interaction with social factors was estimated through Synergy Index SI. Results Increased risk of depressive symptoms was found among adolescents whose parents had low education OR 1.
In addition, adolescents living exclusively with one adult had an increased risk compared to those living with two OR 2. Conclusions The low social position in childhood may increase the risk of depressive symptoms among adolescents even in countries with small social differences and a highly developed welfare system, such as Sweden.
Girls with low educated parents or living exclusively with one adult may be particularly vulnerable. This knowledge is of importance when planning preventive interventions or treatment. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Socioeconomic status, Depressive symptoms, Adolescence, Social inequalities, Longitudinal Background Mental ill-health is the largest public health problem in high-income countries [ 1 ], the second largest contributor to years lived with disabilities DLL in the world and the number one problem among 10—14 year olds in Canada and the US [ 2 ].
Girls are most often found to be at a higher risk of depressive symptoms than boys [ 3 - 9 ] though the opposite has also been found [ 10 ]. In Sweden, self-reported depressive symptoms have increased among young people of both genders in the past two decades [ 111 ].
Also, the prevalence of adolescents treated for depression has increased [ 12 ]. This is especially worrisome given that depression in adolescence, including subclinical depression [ 13 ], is a risk factor for a clinical depression later in life [ 14 ] as well as for other types of mental ill-health [ 15 ], substance abuse [ 16 ], suicide [ 17 ] and low educational attainment and unemployment [ 91517 ].
Most health problems are more common among groups with lower socioeconomic status SES [ 18 ]. Social and economic factors can thus, along with psychosocial and genetic factors, be expected to play a role in developing symptoms of mental ill-health in adolescents [ 9 ].
Exposure to disadvantageous social and material family conditions, such as low educational level, unemployment, lack of resources and lack of time, can be hypothesized both to increase mental distress among children and to decrease possibilities for parents to afford, demand and receive good health care for their children.
The relationship between SES and depressive symptoms is not straightforward, as illustrated by studies both among adolescents [ 34681019 - 28 ] and adults [ 212629 - 34 ]. Comprehension of the field is hampered by heterogeneity of the indicators used to define SES e.
With regard to studies on adolescents, most found at least one indicator of low SES based on parent or family informationlinked to the risk of depressive symptoms, [ 34681019 - 25 ], but in some cases an opposite association was found for another indicator of SES [ 3810 ].
However, studies employing several measures of SES are rare, and the employment of unrefined measures, e. In addition, many of the studies showing associations between depressive symptoms in adolescence and parental income or education used a cross-sectional design, generating problems of reversed causality [ 10222325 ].
Other social factors in childhood shown to be correlated with depressive symptoms in adolescence or later in life are e. Gender differences in the association between parental SES and depressive symptoms in adolescence have rarely been studied, though Reiss et al.
Little is known concerning social differences in the risk of depressive symptoms among adolescents in the form of welfare states typical of the Nordic countries, where social differences are likely to be less pronounced.
In fact, most studies were conducted in the US [ 420232534 ], and some in different European countries, e.
Spain [ 10 ], Hungary [ 8 ], Holland [ 1924 ] and the UK [ 24 ]. Only two recently published studies from the Nordic countries were identified, both from Finland [ 36 ]. Studies from Sweden concerning social status and depressive symptoms in adolescence would importantly contribute to expanding the limited knowledge on social inequalities in mental health in this age group.Social factors, such as low parental education, low occupational class, living in a single-parent home or having unemployed parents, are likely to increase the risk of depressive symptoms among adolescents even in societies with a strong welfare system.
However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing depression. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your health care provider what you can do to reduce your risk. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes / Pediatrics; July 17, ; Childhood abuse linked to greater risk of endometriosis, study finds July 17, by Diane Mapes, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.
Schizophrenia Information > What Causes Schizophrenia?: The Causes of Schizophrenia: Introduction to the Causes of Schizophrenia; Genetic Contribution to Schizophrenia. Experiencing severe deprivation and neglect in childhood can have a lasting psychological impact into early adulthood, according to a unique study which has followed the mental health of a group.
As many as two thirds of people with depression do not realize that they have a treatable illness and therefore do not seek professional help.