References and Further Reading 1.
Aristotle Essay Aristotle Essay A description of virtue ethics must begin with recognition Aristotle essay over justice its founder, Aristotle — B. By age 50, Aristotle founded the Lyceum, a school that remained for centuries one of the great centers of learning in Greece.
Aristotle is considered one of the great philosophers and is associated with approximately lecture-based treatises. This includes a body of work devoted to the study of virtue ethics, with the most significant of these titles including Nicomachean Ethics. Under a virtue ethics philosophy, humans are defined as social, political, and rational in nature.
Ethical progress occurs when the individual moves from being a moral blank at birth tabula rasa to an elevated state in which ethical behaviors are routinely displayed.
To virtue ethicists, it is only through the demonstration of moral behaviors within a social context that one can truly be considered virtuous. Thus, there is no need to seek external, supernatural forces to explain morality.
The development of virtuous behavior occurs though socialization experiences and moral training, with the ultimate goal of virtue being a state of eudaimonia.
According to Aristotle, the role of government is to reinforce virtuous behaviors in the citizenry in order to preserve a peaceful statehood.
This involved a social structure in which a kingship one and aristocracy few governed the remaining polis or republic many. As highlighted in Politics, Aristotle supported the concept of a republic in which sovereignty resides in the people but that also entrusts moral decisions to those in positions of power.
Aristotle suggested that nobility should receive moral training, specifically in virtue ethics, in order to effectively weigh good and bad behaviors. Moreover, Aristotle supported the notion that all lawmakers should be educated in matters of moral virtue, resulting in a greater likelihood that laws and regulations would be just.
Aristotle argued that politicians in a well-ordered state should adhere to principles of rationality while suppressing their own personal desires and whims. Presently, the field of virtue ethics includes a range of seemingly disparate philosophical arguments.
However, despite such appearances, virtue ethicists continue to be linked by the following three essential concepts: Phronesis refers to moral intelligence or practical wisdom. Phronesis denotes the ability to merge rational thinking with personal knowledge.
In everyday language, it is how a person is living up to his or her full potential. Here, virtue ethicists may differ on what exactly is the function of the proper human life.
For example, a kitchen table may be defined as having four legs and functioning as a place to sit and eat. Yet there is discord in terms of a similar account of what the human purpose or meaning is.
By repeatedly asking questions, Aristotle was able to explain what he thought constituted the essence of the human experience.
For the virtue theorist, the display of virtuous behaviors is the only means by which a person can achieve the state of eudaimonia. In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle describes eudaimonia as activity of the soul in accordance with perfect virtue.
Eudaimonia remains the ultimate goal of practicing virtue ethics, one that makes a person flourish in his or her individual capacity and within the milieu of a broader, complex society.
In addition to moral intelligence, Aristotle also identified a set of core moral virtues that includes courage, temperance, prudence, justice, pride, ambition, good temper, being a good friend, truthfulness, and wittiness.
These moral states are further presented as four cardinal virtues i. To achieve these moral states, Aristotle highlighted the importance of the Golden Mean. This hypothetical state is the mean between two corresponding vices, one of excess and one of deficiency.
For example, an extreme display of courage may be viewed as reckless or unwise, while a lack of courage may be labeled as cowardly behavior. The Golden Mean suggests that between the extremes of recklessness and cowardice a moral individual will display the virtue of courage in an appropriate manner to the situation.
In the general sense, virtue theory supports the assumption that the polis is the zenith of human organization and stresses the importance of virtue ethics within this political system.
They have also been integral aspects of both the American Revolution of and the French Revolution of For example, James Madison, who is often called the father of the U.
The concept of general justice centers on a universal set of social rules that could exist only within a perfect community. In this sense, general justice is a synonym for virtuous behavior. Particular justice, on the other hand, refers to the application of a punishment for a crime.
Particular justice contains matters of honor, money, and public safety. This also involves the judgment of an expert who asserts the moral culpability of the offender. As a result, the function of a judge in a legal trial is to restore the equality that was lost during the unjust incident or transaction.
Aristotle states that it is the role of the judge to weigh the unethical behavior of the offender and to assert a fair punishment.
These ideas have profoundly shaped the modern concept of equity.1. Defining the Concept ‘Equality’ is a contested concept: “People who praise it or disparage it disagree about what they are praising or disparaging” (Dworkin , p.
2). Aristotle: Poetics. The Poetics of Aristotle ( B.C.E.) is a much-disdained book. So unpoetic a soul as Aristotle's has no business speaking about such a .
Aristotle (/ ˈ ær ɪ ˌ s t ɒ t əl /; Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; – BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical benjaminpohle.com with Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy".Aristotle provided a complex and harmonious synthesis of the various.
Aristotle: Politics. In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle ( B.C.E.) describes the happy life intended for man by nature as one lived in accordance with virtue, and, in his Politics, he describes the role that politics and the political community must play in bringing about the virtuous life in the citizenry.
The Politics also provides analysis of the kinds of political community that. Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? [Michael J. Sandel] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. For Michael Sandel, justice is not a spectator sport, The Nation 's reviewer of Justice remarked.
In his acclaimed book―based on his legendary Harvard course―Sandel offers a rare education in thinking through the complicated issues and controversies we face in public life today. Aristotle Essay A description of virtue ethics must begin with recognition of its founder, Aristotle (– B.C.E.).
According to historical accounts, Aristotle began study at Plato’s Academy at age 17 and was an exceptional pupil.