Use in ancient cultures[ edit ] Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex16th century. Smoking's history dates back to as early as — BC, when the agricultural product began to be cultivated in Mesoamerica and South America ; consumption later evolved into burning the plant substance either by accident or with intent of exploring other means of consumption.
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Proportional, progressive, and regressive taxes Taxes can be distinguished by the effect they have on the distribution of income and wealth. A proportional tax is one that imposes the same relative burden on all taxpayers—i. A progressive tax is characterized by a more than proportional rise in the tax liability relative to the increase in income, and a regressive tax is characterized by a less than proportional rise in the relative burden.
Thus, progressive taxes are seen as reducing inequalities in income distribution, whereas regressive taxes can have the effect of increasing these inequalities. The taxes that are generally considered progressive include individual income taxes and estate taxes.
Income taxes that are nominally progressive, however, may become less so in the upper-income categories—especially if a taxpayer is allowed to reduce his tax base by declaring deductions or by excluding certain income components from his taxable income.
Proportional tax rates that are applied to lower-income categories will also be more progressive if personal exemptions are declared. Income measured over the course of a given year does not necessarily provide the best measure of taxpaying ability. For example, transitory increases in income may be saved, and during temporary declines in income a taxpayer may choose to finance consumption by reducing savings.
Sales taxes and excises except those on luxuries tend to be regressive, because the share of personal income consumed or spent on a specific good declines as the level of personal income rises.
Poll taxes also known as head taxeslevied as a fixed amount per capita, obviously are regressive. It is difficult to classify corporate income taxes and taxes on business as progressive, regressive, or proportionate, because of uncertainty about the ability of businesses to shift their tax expenses see below Shifting and incidence.
This difficulty of determining who bears the tax burden depends crucially on whether a national or a subnational that is, provincial or state tax is being considered. In considering the economic effects of taxation, it is important to distinguish between several concepts of tax rates.
The statutory rates are those specified in the law; commonly these are marginal rates, but sometimes they are average rates. Marginal income tax rates indicate the fraction of incremental income that is taken by taxation when income rises by one dollar.
Thus, if tax liability rises by 45 cents when income rises by one dollar, the marginal tax rate is 45 percent. Income tax statutes commonly contain graduated marginal rates—i. Careful analysis of marginal tax rates must consider provisions other than the formal statutory rate structure. If, for example, a particular tax credit reduction in tax falls by 20 cents for each one-dollar rise in income, the marginal rate is 20 percentage points higher than indicated by the statutory rates.
Since marginal rates indicate how after-tax income changes in response to changes in before-tax income, they are the relevant ones for appraising incentive effects of taxation. It is even more difficult to know the marginal effective tax rate applied to income from business and capitalsince it may depend on such considerations as the structure of depreciation allowances, the deductibility of interest, and the provisions for inflation adjustment.benjaminpohle.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of benjaminpohle.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere.
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The Economics of Tobacco and Tobacco Taxation in Romania. Tîrgu Mureş, Romania: University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tîrgu Mureş, Tobacconomics description: Tobacconomics is a collaboration of leading researchers who have been studying the economics of.
III. Supply of Tobacco and Tobacco Products in Egypt Tobacco Farming Tobacco farming has long been banned in Egypt Illegal tobacco growing occurs in the Upper Nile region for personal use All tobacco leaf used in producing tobacco is imported. Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
(A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars.)The practice is believed to have begun as early as .
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
A failure to pay, along with evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its. Egypt’s parliament voted on Tuesday in favour of an amendment of the Value Added Tax (VAT) law that increases the tax on cigarettes and other tobacco products.