Permission for reuse must be sought from the publisher. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine and co-published as a series in Critical Care.
Rasayana Anti-aging or Gerontology or Science of Rejuvenation and 8. Atreya Samhita is the oldest medical book in the world. Atreya was the son of Rishi Atri. Atri was the son of god Brahma and one of the seven immortal Rishis in Vedic literature. Rishi Atri was Acharya Teacher of Ayurveda.
They were also considered as Vaidyas Physicians of Ayurveda. These deeply devoted holy physicians considered health to be an important part of spiritual life.
It is believed that the Vaidyas received their training of Ayurveda during meditation which were later transcribed into book form. Beginning of Medicine and Surgery in India is thought as the gifts from god Indra to Sages Bharadwaja, the patron saint of medicine and Dhanvantari, the patron saint of Surgery.
These two main schools made Ayurveda a more scientifically verifiable medical system around BC. These two scholar passed their knowledge to two worthy men Atreya and Susruta. Maharshi Atreya is acknowledged as the first great Indian Physician and Teacher.
He lived in the ancient University Taxilla about 20 miles west of modern Rawalpindi.
He learnt Ayurveda from Rishi Bharadwaja. Bharadwaja Ashrama still exists in Prayag in the modern state of Uttar Pradesh. Atreya revolutionized the medical system of Ayurveda into the system we have today.
He held formal teachings with his students and established Code of Medical Ethics in India years before Hippocratic oath. Galen was his contemporary in the West — AD.
Charaka mentions two cases of disease: External - varies with time of the day, seasons, diet and life-style. His profound medical knowledge was evident from his instructions on building hospitals with maintenance of hygienic atmosphere for patients.
Dhanvantri resigned his Royal status as 'Prince of Kasi' Varanasi and retired into the forest where he dictated his Ayurveda to Susruta of Benaras.
He described human anatomy in details in his treatise "Susruta Samhita". Surgeons of that time had plenty of opportunity to construct the nose. Besides those who lost their nose in the battle, cutting the nose by the irritant "Rajas" was the common practice.
Official punishment for adultery was to cut the nose of the culprits. The early Indians set fractures, performed amputations, excised tumors, repaired hernia and did couching for cataract.
They used over different steel instruments to drain fluids, to remove kidney stones, to sew up wounds and to perform plastic surgery.
Some of the instruments used in those days were very much like those of today such as scissors, saws, needle, forceps etc. In Susruta Samhita transmission of malaria was incriminated to a biting insect, probably mosquito. This shows that they were not only well versed in Medicine and surgery but also in the prevention of disease.
They were also conversant with operative midwifery. Susruta Samhita was re-edited by Chakrapani in the 11th Century.
Ancient history of Pathology in India- Nidanasthanam Of the six divisions of Susruta Samhita, second division consists of sixteen chapters devoted to Pathology, mainly of surgical diseases.
Nidana developed greatly in the 7th century and was established by Madhava Kara of Bengal. According to Wilson, it is likely that it might have been translated from the translation of the book in Persian language.
In Arthasastra of Kautilya other name of Chanakya, the greatest politician of the timethere is a mention of postmortem. These reports of inquest were also necessary in higher courts of law Kontaka Sodhana during the reign of the Great Emperor Chandragupta.He holds a Graduate Certificate in Intensive Care Paramedic Studies, and an MSc in Critical Care.
His main interests are in care of the elderly, end-of-life care, patient safety, professionalism (including role and identity), and paramedic education. About Parrish Medical Center. Parrish Medical Center (PMC), a Parrish Healthcare integrated care partner, is located at N.
Washington Ave., Titusville, Florida. MENTORSHIP FOR URGENT AND PRE HOSPITAL CARE PAPARA FACILITATING EFFECTIVE MENTORSHIP Facilitating Effective Mentorship The concept of facilitation is an interactive two way partnership between the mentor and student which maximises the learning experience (Downie and Basford , p).
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
Central Pacific Railroad construction in the 's. Stereoviews, engravings, maps, and documents are treasures of western Americana that illustrate the history of the first transcontinental railroad, built from Sacramento, California over the Sierra Nevada mountains, the to end of track at the Golden Spike Ceremony at Promontory, Utah where the rails were joined on May 10, with the Union.
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