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Nature versus nurture Although developmental change runs parallel with chronological age,  age itself cannot cause development.
Environmental factors affecting development may include both diet and disease exposure, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive experiences. Plasticity of this type can occur throughout the lifespan and may involve many kinds of behavior, including some emotional reactions.
Genetic-environmental correlations are circumstances in which genetic factors make certain experiences more likely to occur. In all of these cases, it becomes difficult to know whether child characteristics were shaped by genetic factors, by experiences, or by a combination of the two. What relevant aspects of the individual change over a period of time?
What are the rate and speed of development? What are the mechanisms of development — what aspects of experience and heredity cause developmental change? Are there typical individual differences in the relevant developmental changes?
Are there population differences in this aspect of development for example, differences in the development of boys and of girls? Empirical research that attempts to answer these questions may follow a number of patterns.
Initially, observational research in naturalistic conditions may be needed to develop a narrative describing and defining an aspect of developmental change, such as changes in reflex reactions in the first year.
Such studies examine the characteristics of children at different ages.
Some child development studies examine the effects of experience or heredity by comparing characteristics of different groups of children in a necessarily non-randomized design. Child development stages Milestones are changes in specific physical and mental abilities such as walking and understanding language that mark the end of one developmental period and the beginning of another.
Studies of the accomplishment of many developmental tasks have established typical chronological ages associated with developmental milestones. However, there is considerable variation in the achievement of milestones, even between children with developmental trajectories within the typical range.
Some milestones are more variable than others; for example, receptive speech indicators do not show much variation among children with typical hearing, but expressive speech milestones can be quite variable. Prevention of and early intervention in developmental delay are significant topics in the study of child development.
Increased knowledge of age-specific milestones allows parents and others to keep track of appropriate development. Here are descriptions of the development of a number of physical and mental characteristics.
Speed and pattern[ edit ] The speed of physical growth is rapid in the months after birth, then slows, so birth weight is doubled in the first four months, tripled by age 12 months, but not quadrupled until 24 months.
At birth, head size is already relatively near to that of an adult, but the lower parts of the body are much smaller than adult size. In the course of development, then, the head grows relatively little, and torso and limbs undergo a great deal of growth.
However, genetic factors can produce the maximum growth only if environmental conditions are adequate. Some of these differences are due to family genetic factors, others to environmental factors, but at some points in development they may be strongly influenced by individual differences in reproductive maturation.
Motor[ edit ] A child learning to walk Abilities for physical movement change through childhood from the largely reflexive unlearned, involuntary movement patterns of the young infant to the highly skilled voluntary movements characteristic of later childhood and adolescence.
Definition[ edit ] "Motor learning refers to the increasing spatial and temporal accuracy of movements with practice". Speed and pattern[ edit ] The speed of motor development is rapid in early life, as many of the reflexes of the newborn alter or disappear within the first year, and slows later.
Like physical growth, motor development shows predictable patterns of cephalocaudal head to foot and proximodistal torso to extremities development, with movements at the head and in the more central areas coming under control before those of the lower part of the body or the hands and feet.
The dorsolateral frontal cortex is responsible for strategic processing. The parietal cortex is important in controlling perceptual-motor integration and the basal ganglia and supplementary motor cortex are responsible for motor sequences. Intra-limb correlations, like the strong relationship and distance between hip and knee joints, were studied and proved to affect the way an infant will walk.
There are also bigger genetic factors like the tendency to use the left or right side of the body more, predicting the dominant hand early.
Sample t-tests proved that there was a significant difference between both sides at 18 weeks for girls and the right side was considered to be more dominant Piek et al.
We summarize here the results obtained from studies of the effects of gravitational unloading on the spinal system controlling the structure and function of the muscle apparatus. Important roles in the development of low-gravity motor syndrome were found for: the process of axon demyelination due to. Development of oral motor skills includes teaching these muscles to move in the right way in order for the child to learn to swallow, chew and speak. In the early childhood setting children with poor oral motor skills are easily identified. Oral motor development in Down syndrome: oWhat is different? oHow does it affect feeding and speech? 2. Supporting optimal development 3. Available resources. 11/13/ 2 1. What does an SLP do? • SLP = Speech-Language Pathologist Development Motor Development Feeding.
Some factors, like the fact that boys tend to have larger and longer arms are biological constraints that we cannot control, yet have an influence for example, on when an infant will reach sufficiently.
Overall, there are sociological factors and genetic factors that influence motor development. This is significant in motor development because the hind portion of the frontal lobe is known to control motor functions.Summary.
Rothstein speaks about the pathology and mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, advances in ALS research, and current strategies towards the development . “These devices may replace the hands-on activities important for the development of sensorimotor and visual-motor skills, which are important for the learning and application of maths and.
mechanism that transmits power from the engine to the driving wheels of a motor vehicle fail-safe a mechanism capable of returning to a safe state in case there is a failure or malfunction.
XVIVO was tasked with taking the research results and creating a 3D animation that helped viewers better appreciate how the motor proteins in flagella work.
The final animation steps through the process of flagellar beating by diving into the flagella structure and bringing the research to life. Developmental psychology is a scientific approach which aims to explain growth, change and consistency though the lifespan.
Developmental psychology looks at how thinking, feeling, and behavior change throughout a person’s life. The mechanisms involved in motor development involve some genetic components that determine the physical size of body parts at a given age, as well as aspects of muscle and bone strength.