Modified biogeography based optimization

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Modified biogeography based optimization

Polynesia 42 Ants are found on all continents except Antarcticaand only a few large islands, such as GreenlandIcelandparts of Polynesia and the Hawaiian Islands lack native ant species. Most ant species are omnivorous generalistsbut a few are specialist feeders. Their ecological dominance is demonstrated by their biomass: More than 12, species are currently known with upper estimates of the potential existence of about 22, see the article List of ant generawith the greatest diversity in the tropics.

Taxonomic studies continue to resolve the classification and systematics of ants. Online databases of ant species, including AntBase and the Hymenoptera Name Server, help to keep track of the known and newly described species. The head, mesosomaand metasoma are the three distinct body segments.

The petiole forms a narrow waist between their mesosoma thorax plus the first abdominal segment, which is fused to it and gaster abdomen less the abdominal segments in the petiole. The petiole may be formed by one or two nodes the second alone, or the second and third abdominal segments.

Insects do not have lungs; oxygen and other gases, such as carbon dioxidepass through their exoskeleton via tiny valves called spiracles. Insects also lack closed blood vessels; instead, they have a long, thin, perforated tube along the top of the body called the "dorsal aorta" that functions like a heart, and pumps haemolymph toward the head, thus driving the circulation of the internal fluids.

The nervous system consists of a ventral nerve cord that runs the length of the body, with several ganglia and branches along the way reaching into the extremities of the appendages. Like most insects, ants have compound eyes made from numerous tiny lenses attached together.

Ant eyes are good for acute movement detection, but do not offer a high resolution image. They also have three small ocelli simple eyes on the top of the head that detect light levels and polarization.

However, some ants, such as Australia's bulldog anthave excellent vision and are capable of discriminating the distance and size of objects moving nearly a metre away.

The head has two strong jaws, the mandiblesused to carry food, manipulate objects, construct nests, and for defence.

The legs terminate in a hooked claw which allows them to hook on and climb surfaces. Queens shed their wings after the nuptial flightleaving visible stubs, a distinguishing feature of queens.

In a few species, wingless queens ergatoids and males occur. Workers of many species have their egg-laying structures modified into stings that are used for subduing prey and defending their nests.

Often, the larger ants have disproportionately larger heads, and correspondingly stronger mandibles. These are known as macrergates while smaller workers are known as micrergates. In a few species, the median workers are absent, creating a sharp divide between the minors and majors.


The smallest and largest workers in Pheidologeton diversus show nearly a fold difference in their dry-weights.

The role of workers may change with their age and in some species, such as honeypot antsyoung workers are fed until their gasters are distended, and act as living food storage vessels.

Modified biogeography based optimization

These food storage workers are called repletes. Usually the largest workers in the colony develop into repletes; and, if repletes are removed from the colony, other workers become repletes, demonstrating the flexibility of this particular polymorphism.

If the egg is fertilised, the progeny will be female diploid ; if not, it will be male haploid. Ants develop by complete metamorphosis with the larva stages passing through a pupal stage before emerging as an adult.Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.

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Modified biogeography based optimization

Send questions or comments to doi. For a more thorough discussion on methodology and on SPAM’s mathematical model, download a complete PDF, or browse some more documents.

Particle swarm optimization - Wikipedia

Overview. Cloud computing is a model for providing computing resources as a utility which faces several challenges on management of virtualized resources.

EPA announces the winners of the Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards, an agency-wide program that recognizes the outstanding scientific work of EPA employees who publish their technical work in peer-reviewed literature. Biogeography based optimization (BBO) has recently gain interest of researchers due to its efficiency and existence of very few parameters.

The BBO is inspired by geographical distribution of species within islands. In computational science, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a computational method that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality.

It solves a problem by having a population of candidate solutions, here dubbed particles, and moving these particles around in the search-space according to simple mathematical formulae.

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