To conceal a thing; to keep his counsels and the reasons of his actions in his own breast, that he needs not to impart them to any other for their advice and assistance, as being self-sufficient both for the contrivance and execution of whatsoever pleaseth him, and accountable to none for any of his matters.
See Article History Alternative Title: David Herbert Lawrence D. Lawrence, in full David Herbert Lawrence, born September 11,Eastwood, NottinghamshireEngland—died March 2,Vence, FranceEnglish author of novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters.
His novels Sons and LoversThe Rainbowand Women in Love made him one of the most influential English writers of the 20th century. Youth and early career Lawrence was the fourth child of a north Midlands coal miner who had worked from the age of 10, was a dialect speaker, a drinker, and virtually illiterate.
Lawrence won a scholarship to Nottingham High School — and left at 16 to earn a living as clerk in a factory, but he had to give up work after a first attack of pneumonia.
While convalescing, he began visiting the Haggs Farm nearby and began an intense friendship —10 with Jessie Chambers. He became a pupil-teacher in Eastwood in and performed brilliantly in the national examination. Encouraged by Jessie, he began to write in ; his first story was published in a local newspaper in He kept on returning to Eastwood in imagination long after he had left it in fact.
In Lawrence went to teach in Croydon, a London suburb. Hueffer recognized his genius, the Review began to publish his work, and Lawrence was able to meet such rising young writers as Ezra Pound.
His second novel, The Trespassergained the interest of the influential editor Edward Garnettwho secured the third novel, Sons and Lovers, for his own firm, Duckworth.
In the crucial year of —12 Lawrence had another attack of pneumonia. He broke his engagement to Louie and decided to give up teaching and live by writing, preferably abroad.
Sons and Lovers carries this process to the point of quasi-autobiography. The central character, Paul Morel, is naturally identified as Lawrence; the miner-father who drinks and the powerful mother who resists him are clearly modeled on his parents; and the painful devotion of Miriam Leivers resembles that of Jessie Chambers.
In the novel, the mother turns to her elder son William for emotional fulfillment in place of his father. This section of the original manuscript was much reduced by Garnett before publication.
He then, in reaction, has a passionate affair with a married woman, Clara Dawes, in what is the only purely imaginary part of the novel.
Though Clara wants more from him, Paul can manage sexual passion only when it is split off from commitment; their affair ends after Paul and Dawes have a murderous fight, and Clara returns to her husband.
Paul, for all his intelligence, cannot fully grasp his own unconscious motivations, but Lawrence silently conveys them in the pattern of the plot. At this time he was engaged in two related projects. The other, more important project was an ambitious novel of provincial life that Lawrence rewrote and revised until it split into two major novels: The Rainbow, which was immediately suppressed in Britain as obscene; and Women in Love, which was not published until They were expelled from the county in on suspicion of signaling to German submarines and spent the rest of the war in London and Derbyshire.
Though threatened with military conscription, Lawrence wrote some of his finest work during the war.
It was also a period of personal crisis. Lawrence and Frieda fought often; Frieda had always felt free to have lovers. Following a visit to Cambridgewhere he met Bertrand RussellMaynard Keynes, and other members of the Cambridge secret society known as the Apostles, Lawrence began to question his own sexual orientation.
This internal conflict, which was resolved a few years later, is evident in the abandoned first chapter of Women in Love.
In The Rainbow, the first of the novels of this period, Lawrence extends the scope of Sons and Lovers by following the Brangwen family who live near Eastwood over three generations, so that social and spiritual change are woven into the chronicle.
The Brangwens begin as farmers so attached to the land and the seasons as to represent a premodern unconsciousness, and succeeding generations in the novel evolve toward modern consciousnessself-consciousness, and even alienation.
These two initially have a stormy relationship but subside into conventional domesticity anchored by work, home, and children. There was an element of war hysteria in the legal suppression of the book inbut the specific ground was a homoerotic episode between Ursula and a female teacher.
Lawrence was marked as a subversive writer.The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
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Find all the books, read about the author, and more. In the Middle Ages sex was considered, as it is now, to be a normal and natural part of benjaminpohle.com authorities agreed that it was not inherently sinful because God would not have made such a necessary activity taboo (without sex one cannot have children and fulfill the command to "increase and multiply, and fill the earth" given in Genesis ).