The impact of a child with Down syndrome on a family Dr. Brian Skotko and his team of researchers have published new information on the impact of a child with Down syndrome on a family.
The majority of women know that cigarettes, alcohol and drugs can affect their growing baby during pregnancy. What they may not know is that stress during pregnancy is also a risk factor that may have significant consequences for the developing fetus.
Chronic stress versus acute stress Chronic stress, such as unemployment, ongoing familial or marital discord is a type of stress that has true consequences on the pregnant mother and her fetus. However, most human and animal research has focused on acute stress.
In animal research, acute stress may be obtained by emitting a sudden loud noise or by holding the animal in a contained environment for a specific time. In human research, such tests are of course impossible to do. In order to fully appreciate the effects of prenatal stress, it is important to understand the difference between objective and subjective stress.
Objective stress Objective stress refers to the measurable amount of hardship experienced by an individual.
Factors that may contribute to this stress include: An individual can have a high objective stress, but a low subjective stress. Subjective stress can be evaluated by questionnaires, which determine the psychological response to the events.
Surprising results from the Suzanne King's research team on PNMSindicate that objective stress has more of an affect on fetal development than subjective stress. How is stress communicated from mom to fetus?
Understanding how prenatal maternal stress can affect a developing fetus requires some knowledge about the biology behind the stress response.
Response to stress involves a number of organs and systems within the body; from the brain to specialized organs, such the adrenal glands, which are adjacent to the kidneys. The process begins with a stressor stimulating the brain, which evaluates the threat and processes it into an appropriate response, physiological and behavioural.
This results in the secretion of corticoids, such as cortisol, and glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands into the bloodstream. Prenatal maternal stress is associated with increased levels of cortisol in the mother.
It is believed that this molecule has a direct effect on the fetus. Moreover, because a linear relationship exists between maternal and fetal cortisol levels, relatively small increases in maternal cortisol are equivalent to relatively large increases in fetal cortisol.
When is a fetus most susceptible to prenatal maternal stress? Timing is everything, especially for the effects of prenatal maternal stress PNMS. New research findings show that the first two trimesters are the most sensitive to prenatal stress. Two periods are especially crucial: At week 10, the embryo becomes a fetus and it begins to move.
The vital organs now have a solid foundation. During this time, the brain will produce almostnew neurons every minute.
This is called neurogenesis During weeks 24 and 30, nerve cell connections are occurring. Guided by chemical signals, nerve processes seek out their target and establish contact.
Communication between neurons begins. At birth, there are an excess of nerve connections, those that are not used will degenerate. This is called synaptogenesis Exposure to extreme stress during these critical periods of pregnancy will influence which developing structures are affected and therefore determine the physical, cognitive or behavioral outcome.
For example, research conducted by Suzanne King and her team following the Quebec ice storm, shows: That high levels of objective PNMS were associated with lower intellectual and language abilities of two-year old children.
Effects of stress on the fetus The exposure of an expectant mother to stressful situations can influence the cognitive, behavioural and physical development of the children. In addition it may result in an increased risk of other mental health disorders, such as autism and depression.
A study conducted by the Douglas Institute monitored pregnant women and their children during and following a severe ice storm.Objective: The aim of this study was to (1) examine the psychological impact of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in women with a high-risk (≥) and low-risk (≤) result on combined.
The effects on the human fetus of prenatal cigarette use have been identified and studied since the s, 1 the effects of alcohol and opiate use have been studied since the s, 2 – 4 and the effects a variety of other illicit drugs have been studied since the s.
5 – 7 This report reviews data regarding the prevalence of exposure. effects of teenage pregnancy in Kontagora Local Government Area town and then collected after immediately on the sport after 30 minutes of waiting. This was done for each 50 responded in three days. have tested the impact of pre-pregnancy weight Infant weight was higher at birth and at 13 months of age following pre-pregnancy over-weight in a Finnish study (12).
In two Asian cohorts, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with offspring weight for length z-score through the ﬁrst 12 months of life (13,14).
Studying the Impact of Prenatal WIC Participation on Infant Mortality Grand Canyon University Introduction to Nursing Research NRSV Kathy Skromme August 15, Studying the Impact of Prenatal WIC Participation on Infant Mortality Infant Mortality is a .
OVERTON – A $, federal grant will fund research to identify the impacts of prenatal stress on beef cattle DNA, white blood cells, other tissue and subsequent changes in genetics related to temperament, said a Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientist.