Health Impact Assessments Health Impact Assessment Conditions in the places where we live, work and play have a profound impact on our health. It is important to create conditions where we can easily and safely walk, run or bike; when we have clean air, healthy food and access to affordable housing; and when we are safe from things like violent crime, fires and lead poisoning. The five principles and values of HIA are democracy, equity, sustainable development, scientific and robust practice, and a holistic approach to health. It determines whether an HIA is feasible, timely and would add value to the decision-making process.
Find articles by Mary Shultz Neil R. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceived and designed the experiments: Received May 11; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Methods A list of journals across several subject areas was developed from which to collect article citation data.
Citation information and cited reference counts of the articles published in and from journals were obtained from the Scopus database.
An analysis of citation data across a five-year timespan was performed on this set of articles. Results A total of 45, articles were examined, including 7, with NIH-funding. This result is highly significant even after controlling for journal as a proxy of article quality and topic.
Conclusion Our analysis suggests that factors occurring between and produced a subsequent boost in scholarly impact of PubMed Central. The Public Access Policy is likely to be one such factor, but others may have contributed as well e. On April 7,the NIH announced a Public Access Policy, to "ensure that the public has access to the published results of NIH funded research" [ 2 ] and to "help advance science and improve human health", which required that all peer-reviewed articles resulting from research funded by the NIH are deposited in and publicly accessible from PMC within 12 months of publication [ 34 ].
With the policy, PMC submission is a requirement of funding.
The present study seeks to determine if free availability through PMC increases the scholarly impact of research. Citation rates, both yearly and cumulative over five years, were analyzed as a measure of scholarly impact. Background PMC, launched inis a "free archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature" managed by the U.
NIH National Library of Medicine as part of its "legislative mandate to collect and preserve the biomedical literature" [ 5 ]. PMC is related to the larger PubMed database, but is, in fact, a separate system. It currently has over 24 million citations to journal articles.
PubMed is not a full-text database although it offers link-outs from citations to full-text provided through publishers often accessible through institutional subscriptionsas well as freely available full-text articles, including those on its sister site, PMC.
PMC is a repository of freely available full-text journal articles and currently contains over 3. There are two main ways in which an article can be archived in PMC: Currently, the number of manuscripts submitted to the system averages over 5, per month [ 8 ].
In addition to the above methods for depositing content in PMC, there are collaborative efforts on an international level to have organizations in other countries use PMC as an archive [ 10 ]. The likely ways that users are currently accessing PMC articles online include: Both Google Scholar and PubMed typically include links to the publisher version of the article on the publisher website as well as a link to the PMC full-text version.
Full-text access to the publisher version of the article is usually dependent on fee-based subscriptions, either institutional or individual, unless the journal is open access or the publisher has made journal content freely available after an embargo period.
Inapproximately 3 million PubMed searches were performed on a daily basis through the PubMed Web site and an additional 3 million with scripts application programming interfaces [ 11 ]. It is logical to conclude that searching PubMed would lead many searchers to the publicly accessible PMC version of articles.We employ the introduction of the UK National Minimum Wage as a natural experiment.
We estimate the causal impact of wage increases on mental health. We focus on low-wage earners who are at higher risk of mental ill-health. Nov 14, · Poor environmental quality has its greatest impact on people whose health status is already at risk.
Therefore, environmental health must address the societal and environmental factors that increase the likelihood of exposure and disease. Our Health Printer-friendly version of this page Discoveries emerging from NIH-funded research have led to new ways to treat, diagnose, and prevent illness, ultimately effecting the health of .
The estimates in this report are based on data from the National Vital Statistics System, National Health Interview Survey, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Health Care. This background paper examines health care spending and the impact on the economy of the United States.
In brief, the findings reported in this paper are: Households In the latest available data (), the average household spent $2, a year, or percent of its income, on health care.
The national health insurance was established to increase access to health care services and the maternal component was later introduced to improve the health outcomes of both mother and child.