But when Francis Crick, co-discoverer with James D. Watson of the double helix structure of DNA, was asked what unraveling the chimpanzee genome would tell us about human differences he replied: The dog genome, Crick went on, would be a better target—because dogs vary so widely in appearance and behavior that unraveling their DNA would reveal much more about the influence of genes. Canine evolution, because of dog breeding, has been run in fast forward—in some cases, before our very eyes.
This sentiment reflects a growing movement within feminist circles to understand how people simultaneously face bias along multiple identity dimensions such as gender, race, and sexual orientation — an idea called intersectionality. Social psychologists have recently joined in this movement, but have also reframed the discussion.
At this academic gathering, intersectionality was a major topic at a daylong session about gender. Here are three lines of research illustrating how gender interacts with other social identities to shape bias in often surprising ways.
People of multiple minority groups face both distinct advantages and disadvantages. Biases based on gender and race do not always simply pile up to create double disadvantages, for instance.
When stereotypes can both help and hurt black women leaders Women are often viewed negatively for exhibiting traditionally masculine behavior.
Assertive female leaders are dislikedwhile assertive male leaders gain respectfor instance. However, could this distaste for assertive female leaders vary by race?
Unlike white women, black women are often stereotyped as being assertive, confident and not feminine. These masculine traits are not only expected for black women but also allowed, at least in leadership roles, according to research presented at the SPSP conference.
Robert Livingston discusses his research on how gender and race interact to influence evaluations of corporate leaders. Both white female and black male leaders were rated more negatively when described as tough rather than caring.
In contrast, black women faced no such penalty for behaving assertively and were instead rated similarly to white men. Black men are penalized because they are feared by others and activate other stereotypes such as being dangerous.
Livingston, however, emphasized that these evaluations are complex and likely depend on context. In a follow-up experiment led by Duke University associate professor of management and organizations Ashleigh Rosetteblack female leaders were evaluated especially harshly if their corporation had performed poorly during the past five months.
Under those conditions, black women were rated more negatively than white women or black men for the exact same business scenario.
Racial minority women can therefore be rendered metaphorically invisible. Along with Columbia Associate Professor of Psychology Valerie Purdie-VaughnsMohr tested whether racial minority women are featured in mass media less frequently than more prototypical others.
In a currently unpublished study, the researchers analyzed covers of Time magazine published from to Photos of racial minority women, like this one of Condoleezza Rice, were underrepresented over the 28 years of analyzed Time covers. Time The study found that racial minority women were underrepresented when racial minorities were on the cover of Time.
For instance, women were only 20 percent of the covers that featured racial minorities. Conversely, when women were on the cover, racial minority women were underrepresented relative to their share of the U.
Mohr suggested that these results reflect the broader invisibility of racial minority women in American society. For instance, even though three black queer women started the Black Lives Matter movementmost media attention has focused on black men killed by police.
In contrast, black women killed by police such as Meagan Hockaday, Tanisha Anderson and Rekia Boyd are invisible, critics argue. For instance, when entering college, black women are more likely than white women to intend to major in STEM. Her research shows that black women hold weaker gender-STEM stereotypes than white women, helping explain that difference.
This bias was found only when undergraduates evaluated fictitious white, but not black, employees. Black women were instead evaluated similarly compared to white men. In one large nationally representative experiment, gender bias in STEM even reversed by race and ethnicity.
STEM faculty responded less often to emails from white female than white male prospective graduate students. For instance, even though black women start out in college more interested in STEM than white women, black women may face unique barriers such as race-based stereotypes to completing college with a STEM degree.
This research is still in its early stages. For instance, more studies are needed to test how evaluations of black female leaders found in small laboratory experiments generalize to real world settings. Attendees at the SPSP conference also emphasized the need to develop theoretical frameworks that can help explain the nuanced results.The Social Construction of Race, Ethnicity, Class, and Gender Words Mar 20th, 5 Pages Socialization is the unequal distribution of power, wealth, income and .
"What I find effective in The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality is the author's centrality of categories of race, class, gender, and sexuality, and how they are socially constructed and transformed by such social institutions as the family, education, the economy, state, and the benjaminpohle.coms: The race and gender of the fictitious leader were also varied across conditions.
Robert Livingston discusses his research on how gender and race interact to influence evaluations of corporate leaders. whether our gender and race vocabularies in fact track social kinds that are typ- ically obscured by the manifest content of our everyday race and gender con- cepts.
5 Although the analyses I offer will point to existing social kinds~and this. The Social Construction of Race, Ethnicity, Sex, and Gender By Sally Raskoff Is it easier to conceive of race/ethnicity or sex/gender as socially constructed categories?
To say “gender is a social construction” is not to deny evolution, to deny science, to deny that humans are animals, or to claim some sort of ethereal special place for the non-material.
It is simply to ask that a role for human activity and imagination be included as part of our understandings.