Despite all the recent hardships, the majority of colonists since birth were reared to believe that England was to be loved and its monarch revered. Fear was another factor.
Publication history[ edit ] Thomas Paine arrived in the American colonies in Novembershortly before the Battles of Lexington and Concord. Though the colonies and Great Britain had commenced hostilities against one another, the thought of independence was not initially entertained.
Writing of his early experiences in the colonies inPaine "found the disposition of the people such, that they might have been led by a thread and governed by a reed. Their attachment to Britain was obstinate, and it was, at that time, a kind of treason to speak against it.
Their ideas of grievance operated without resentment, and their single object was reconciliation. Though it began as a series of letters to be published in various Philadelphia papers, it grew too long and unwieldy to publish as letters, leading Paine to select the pamphlet form.
Incensed, Paine ordered Bell not to proceed on a second edition, as he had planned several appendices to add to Common Sense.
Bell ignored this and began advertising a "new edition". While Bell believed this advertisement would convince Paine to retain his services, it had the opposite effect. Paine secured the assistance of the Bradford brothers, publishers of the Pennsylvania Evening Postand released his new edition, featuring several appendices and additional writings.
This set off a month-long public debate between Bell and the still-anonymous Paine, conducted within the pages and advertisements of the Pennsylvania Evening Post, with each party charging the other with duplicity and fraud.
Both Paine and Bell published several more editions through the end of their public squabble. Common Sense sold almostcopies in and according to Paine,copies were sold in the first three months.
Paine also granted publishing rights to nearly every imprint which requested them, including several international editions. His name did not become officially connected with the independence controversy until March 30, Ultimately, he lost money on the Bradford printing as well, and because he decided to repudiate his copyright, never did profit from Common Sense.
Of the Origin and Design of Government in General, With Concise Remarks on the English Constitution[ edit ] In his first section, Paine related common Enlightenment theories of the state of naturein order to establish a foundation for republican government.
Paine began this section by making a distinction between society and governmentarguing that government is a "necessary evil".
He illustrated the power of society to create and maintain happiness in man through the example of a few isolated people that find it easier to live together rather than apart, creating society. As society continues to grow, a government becomes necessary to prevent the natural evil Paine saw in man.
In order to promote civil society through laws and account for the impossibility of all people meeting centrally to make laws, representation and therefore elections become necessary.
As this model was clearly intended to mirror the situation of the colonists at the time of publication, Paine went on to consider the Constitution of the United Kingdom.
Paine found two tyrannies in the English constitution; monarchical and aristocratic tyranny, in the king and peers, who rule by heredity and contribute nothing to the people. Paine criticized the English constitution by examining the relationship between the kingthe peersand the commons.
Of Monarchy and Hereditary Succession[ edit ] In the second section Paine considers monarchy first from a biblical perspective, then from a historical perspective.
He begins by arguing that all men are equal at creation and, therefore, the distinction between kings and subjects is a false one. Paine then examines some of the problems that kings and monarchies have caused in the past and concludes: In England a king hath little more to do than to make war and give away places; which in plain terms, is to impoverish the nation and set it together by the ears.
A pretty business indeed for a man to be allowed eight hundred thousand sterling a year for, and worshipped into the bargain! Of more worth is one honest man to society and in the sight of God, than all the crowned ruffians that ever lived. The constitutional monarchy, according to Locke, would limit the powers of the king sufficiently to ensure that the realm would remain lawful rather than easily becoming tyrannical.
According to Paine, however, such limits are insufficient. In the mixed state, power will tend to concentrate into the hands of the monarch, permitting him eventually to transcend any limitations placed upon him.
Paine questions why the supporters of the mixed state, since they concede that the power of the monarch is dangerous, wish to include a monarch in their scheme of government in the first place.
Thoughts on the Present State of American Affairs[ edit ] Constitution of the United States as proposed by Thomas Paine in Common Sense In the third section Paine examines the hostilities between England and the American colonies and argues that the best course of action is independence.
Paine writes that a Continental Charter "should come from some intermediate body between the Congress and the people" and outlines a Continental Conference that could draft a Continental Charter.
These five would be accompanied by two members of the assembly of colonies, for a total of seven representatives from each colony in the Continental Conference. The Continental Conference would then meet and draft a Continental Charter that would secure "freedom and property to all men, and… the free exercise of religion".
Paine suggested that a congress may be created in the following way: The Congress would meet annually, and elect a president.The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House Common Sense made a persuasive and impassioned case for independence, adopted by the Continental Congress, and signed by John Hancock, President of the Congress.
Oct 27, · Watch video · On this day in , in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Continental Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence, which proclaims the independence of a new United States of America from Great.
Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) fighting at Lexington and Concord, (B) convening of the Second Continental Congress, (C) publication of Common Sense, (D) adoption of the Declaration of Independence.
Video: The Second Continental Congress and Thomas Paine's Common Sense marked the beginning of the long road to revolution for the American colonies. By , military actions had finally. Start studying APUSH 7 & 8. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
fighting at lexington and Concord (B) convening of the SEcond Continental Congress (C) publication of common sense (D) adoption of the Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence did all of the following except.
When Common Sense was published in January , it sold, by some estimates, a stunning , copies in the colonies. What exactly made this pamphlet so appealing?
This is a question not only about the state of mind of Paine's audience, but also about the role of public opinion and debate, the function of the press, and the shape of political culture in the colonies.